Discuss the nature and Scope of ​​Geomorphology.

Geomorphology is the study of the surface features of the Earth, including its topography and landforms. The term geomorphology comes from Greek roots meaning “earth movement.” It is a broad field that focuses on the variety of ways that landforms on our planet are formed.

Geomorphologists study how erosion and deposition affect the landscape, how glaciers shape mountains, how earthquakes and volcanoes can reshape coastlines, and more. They also study how plants and animals are affected by their environment. For example, they may look at whether a particular species can thrive in different types of climates or if it prefers a particular type of habitat.

Let’s look into the history of geomorphology. The Anglo-language word “geomorphology” is derived from the Greek words “Geo” (meaning earth), “Morphy” (form-form), and “logos” (discourse-description), meaning to describe the shape of the earth. As far as is known, this word was first used by Mr. A. Pack. Before this, until the nineteenth century, the terms “Morphology of the Earth Surface” in English and “Morphologie der Ardauerflche” in German were always used.

A few years ago, in many countries in Europe and America, the word “physiography” was used in a broad sense, and under this science, the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere were included. The “Kali Physiography” of Tarr and Martin and the “Physiography” of Salisvari are vivid examples of this.

Apart from physiography, the study of landforms is also under another branch of geography. This is called “Physical Geography”. In Germany until the last world war, vigorous research work on three different aspects of physical geography continued, and the study of landforms continued under this. But after that, narrow specialization abandoned the unity of physical geography, and now almost all institutions of geography have made geomorphology a special area of study and research. The extent of specialization has reached such an extent that some people consider the study of landforms to be a part of physical geography. They do not even consider it as a part of geography, and as a result, geomorphologists and geographers are gradually moving away from each other. Now, geomorphology has become a distinct subject. In the Hindi language, the words geomorphology, geomorphology, and geomorphology are used for the word geomorphology. Where landforms have been studied, the terms geomorphology and geomorphology are also used in some places.

The lack of the above definition is somewhat overcome by the definition propounded by Mr. Worcester. According to him, “Geomorphology is the interpretive description of the reliefs of the Earth.”

Stroller’s definition is more complete than Worcester’s definition. According to it, “Geomorphology explains the origin of all types of landforms and their systematic and orderly development.”

Statler, in his definition, has called geomorphology the study of all types of landforms other than the study of landforms. Apart from this, the origin and development of landforms have not been discussed anywhere in the previous definitions. That too has been included by Staller.

Peel has given the definition of geomorphology in his own way. From his point of view, “Geomorphology is the study of the denudation on the earth and the shapes and scenery formed from it.” Peel, in his definition, has emphasized the “denudation” element that develops landforms. According to Mr. Bulldies, “Geomorphology is basically the study of the shape of the crust and not the study of processes.” According to them, processes are studied in physical geology.

Scope of Geomorphology

Determining the scope of geomorphology is very difficult because this subject is related to geology and geography on one side and to physics, chemistry, and hydrology on the other. Therefore, before properly determining the study area of geomorphology, it would be appropriate to discuss its relationship with other subjects.

Geomorphology and Geology – The foundation of the basic work in geomorphology was laid by geologists. Geology mainly studies the structure, organization, internal forces, and processes of the earth.

Geomorphology and Geography – Geomorphology has a very close relationship with geography. Geography deals with the study of the relationship between the natural environment and humans.

Geomorphology and Geophysics – Geophysics is the study of the entire Earth by physical methods.

Geomorphology and Geochemistry – Weathering and mass movement are important aspects of the study of geomorphology. Scientific analysis of these two processes is not possible without knowledge of geochemistry.

In geomorphology and hydrology – In modern geomorphology, hydrologists like Horton have done very important work. Geomorphological studies can solve many problems of hydrology.

In short, it can be said that the study area of geomorphology is not only limited to landforms but also encompasses other scientific subjects. Therefore, for the progress of this science, geomorphologists should always be ready to collaborate with other scientists, use their methods in their subject, and test their theories. This exchange of ideas will lead to the development of the scientific world.


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