Discuss the Tidal Hypothesis of the Origin of the Earth.

The British mathematicians Jeans and Jeffrey presented the. It was a big day for earth science, especially for those of us who had been waiting for this moment for decades. We were all hoping that something new would come out of this conference and help us understand how we got here, but no one could have predicted what happened next.

Jeffrey began by explaining how he had been working on his project for years, trying to figure out how the earth came into existence. He knew that if he could solve this problem, he would be able to answer any questions about our origins—and maybe even bring some peace to those who have been searching for answers for so long.


Jeffrey went over some of his previous theories, which included some very interesting ideas about how plate tectonics may have helped form our planet in its current state (something we all know is true). Then he brought up another idea: that there is a third force at play when it comes time to form planets like ours. It’s called “tidal forces,” and they are responsible for controlling how large each planet can become—they determine whether or not they’re going to be rocky or liquid-like.

They imagined that the Sun was a huge body of gas and in the past, a very big star in the universe, moving near the Sun, caused a tide in the Sun by its force of attraction. As this large star approached the Sun, the height and size of the tides increased. When the star came at least as far from the Sun, then a cigar-shaped tide, millions of kilometers long, rose from the gaseous Sun’s shell just below it, as would be known from the given figure. The massive star collided, as a result of which the Sun and some part of that huge star were scattered in the sky. 

From there, the planets were formed, while going on their way to the star, coming at a lesser distance from the Sun, could not go far, and could not return to the Sun itself. In this way the substance emanating from the tide became the form of a long cigar, which was thick in the middle and thinner on both sides, the reason for the thinning of the edges was the attraction of both powers. Simultaneously, this cigar-like substance started revolving around the Sun. 

Again, due to the cooling and shrinkage of this substance in the shape of a cigar, its shape became disorganized and planets were formed. Similarly, satellites were formed due to the coming of different planets near the Sun and due to the separation of tides from them. 

According to Jeffrey, the Sun collided with the star coming closer to the Sun, due to which some parts of the Sun and the giant star got concentrated in the sky due to the force of attraction, and from these, the planets were formed. Jeffrey made up for the error of this hypothesis with his effort.

Evidence in favor of the Tidal Hypothesis

1. If the total stars of the solar system are placed in a straight line, then their shape will become like a singer’s. The big planets fall in the middle and the minor planets on both sides, only Mars falls in the opposite order. 

2. The number and size of satellites of different planets are also favorable for this. Minor planets do not have satellites. Medium-class planets have fewer satellites, but larger planets have more satellites.

3. The planet named Yama was discovered after the tidal hypothesis was proposed and the size of this planet proves helpful in its confirmation.

4. The expansion of satellites is also in the shape of the solar system because the satellites in the middle of the planets which have many satellites are big and the satellites on the side are small. This further increases the usefulness of this hypothesis.

5. According to this hypothesis, the big planets remained in the gas form for a long time. So their satellites became more numerous, but their size remained small. The satellites of nearby planets formed in small numbers but became larger. Due to the small size of the terrestrial planets Mercury and Yama, they cooled down quickly, so their satellites did not form.

6. All the planets are tilted on their keel due to the force of attraction of the Sun and in this inclination, they imagine the Sun. The inclination of all the planets is different.

Objections in opposition Tidal Hypothesis.

1. In this sequence, Mars becomes unsuitable, whose solution is not available in this hypothesis.

 2. What happened to the giant star which was the agent of tidal eruption? Why did this giant star get spooked by the attraction of the Sun? 

After the formation of the solar system, did that huge star become dead so that it could not come close to the Sun while revolving again? If he could come close to the Sun again, what was its effect on the Sun? The answer to these questions is beyond the interpretation of this hypothesis.

3. The planets formed from the ecliptic of the Sun should have been envisaged to be closer to the Sun, but we know that the planets orbit the Sun at a distance of 500 times the diameter of the Sun and that Varuna is 3,200 times the diameter of the Sun.

It has been proved on the basis that the theory of Jeans is unable to explain the distance between the Sun and the planets. American astronomer Russell has also objected in 1937. Kant and Laplace’s theories cannot explain the low angular momentum of the Sun, similarly, Jeans’ hypothesis is unable to fully explain the greater angular momentum of the planets.

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