In Physical Geography, the factors and actions given by nature are studied. It is the main part of geography. The elements of physical geography are found in the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and animal or biosphere. The division of water from one place to another, the regular movement of air on the earth, the change of the surface due to internal and external influences and the origin and destruction of various animals and plants in a particular time, the speed and progress of nature. have irrefutable evidence. It is the coordination and study of the sciences which provides an understanding of the human environment. This is the nature of the basic principles of geology. It is closely related to geomorphology, geology, soil science, etc. Thus physical geography can be called human history.
Arthur Holmes has called the physical environment the physical geography, which includes the study of landforms, oceans, and air. The famous human geographer Humboldt has written that “Physical geography is that chapter which exists in the environment along with the environment.”
Human is the center of the study of physical geography because, since the origin of human beings on earth, physical factors and human beings have lived as a unit. Man has survived only because of the mutual agreement between these two. Gradually man has been influenced by nature and man has also brought changes in nature. With the help of his willpower and intelligence, he has made the natural inconveniences suitable for him and has made himself suitable for him in the lap of the changing nature.
In today’s progressive era, for proper economic and cultural progress, knowledge of favorable and unfavorable physical conditions is necessary and this knowledge is possible only through the study of physical geography. In this way, the study of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere are done in physical geography.
Scope and importance of physical geography
The subject area of physical geography is very wide, yet its branches are not so closely intertwined and correlated with each other as the branches of human and economic or social geography. The creation and development of the field of physical geography is a unitary form of the surface of the earth.
In physical geography, geography means that part of the earth’s crust where the earth and the sky meet and just below the ground, where the internal forces are created, where underground water and important minerals are found. In this area, whatever activities are done on the unmanned earth, that is the field of physical geography. Under this, the lithosphere, its formation, and form diversity, its degradation and development, the hydrosphere, its bottom, the physical and chemical characteristics of ocean water, the basis of change in the bottom, the effect and evidence, the various motions of water and the effects related to the lithosphere, the atmosphere The organization of gases, surrounding the surface. , its various types of operation due to the effect of solar heat and the interaction on the lithosphere of the actions created by the result of air disturbance heat and vapor, the demarcation of climatic zones by such action reactivity on the surface, etc. Abiotic but covered phenomena in the laws of physics And activities are the main parts of physical geography.
Apart from this, the creation, development, and diversity of the entire biological world and every distinction and strain all come under it. These activities are divided into two classes named animal and plant. But many scholars do not include the biological world in the physical basis of geography. According to him, the position of the earth in outer space, its solar and planetary relationships, the nature of the earth, the facts, and the above abiotic elements are its parts, while most scholars consider all the forms, symptoms, actions and events and effects of the biological world as its part.
In this way, the broad area of the entire physical geography is included under its following branches-
In Geo-mathematics, we study the physical geography of the Earth. We describe how it is composed of land masses, oceans, and other features. We also look at how it has changed over time and how it can be used by people to create maps.
- Astral science and Geophysics
In Astral science and Geophysics, we study the relation between the physical and the spiritual world.
- Geosciences, Topography, and Rock science
In Geosciences, Topography, and Rock science we study rocks and how they are formed. We learn about the different kinds of rocks that we can find on earth. We also learn how these rocks are formed.
- Soil science or soil metaphysics
Soil science is a branch of geology that deals with landforms and their origins, particularly the formation and evolution of soils, and their role in the maintenance of ecosystems.
In Oceanography, we study the ocean, its layers, and how they are created and destroyed by the winds, currents, and other factors. We learn how to identify different types of water and how they behave in different environments.
- Climatology and Meteorology
In Climatology and Meteorology, we study the Earth’s climate, which is one of the most important subjects in science. It is important to understand this topic because it affects everyone on Earth, and every day we are affected by weather conditions.
In Ethnography, we study the culture and traditions of a particular people. We learn about how they live and how they think.
- Cartography and Statistical Methods.
In The Cartography and Statistical Methods, we study cartography and statistical methods. We have to identify the main features of these methods.
In Botany, we study plants. We can find many different types of plants in the world. There are grasses, trees, bushes, and vines.
In Zoology we study animals. Animals are living things that are warm-blooded and have a backbone, and most of them have legs. Some animals can fly, swim, or climb trees. They eat plants and animals, and some need water to live.
We can tell how old an animal is by looking at its teeth. The teeth grow through the gums when they are babies, but they stop growing when the animals are fully grown. If a baby animal doesn’t have enough food to keep growing teeth through its life, it won’t be able to eat anything at all!
Some animals eat bugs like spiders and ticks because these bugs aren’t good for people to eat because they’re too small! Other animals hunt other animals or catch them as prey so they can eat them later on or use their bodies as materials for making new things like ropes or clothes (like shoes).