Write the Main Hypotheses Related to the Origin of the Earth.

The origin of the earth is very mysterious. Different scholars have different views on this subject. As science is progressing, the mystery of the origin of the earth is coming to light. There are two views on this regard

1. Monotheistic or monistic hypothesis,

2. The pairwise or dualistic hypothesis.


Concepts of the eighteenth century-

(1) Laplace’s Nebula Hypothesis,

 (2) Kant’s hypothesis.

Nineteenth-century concepts

(2) Lakier’s meteor hypothesis,

(2) Ligandi’s meteorite hypothesis.

Concepts of the twentieth century

(1) James, Jeans, and Jaffray’s tidal hypothesis, 

(2) Chamberlin and Molton’s planetary hypothesis, 

(3) Atomic hypothesis 

(4) Russell and Littleton’s hypothesis 

(5) Home’s hypothesis

Modern Concepts-

(1) Von Weijser and Queir’s hypothesis, 

(2) Fasten Kove’s hypothesis, 

(3) Physico-classical Afven’s hypothesis, 

(4) Drobyshevsky’s Jupiter-Sun, the duality hypothesis.

1. Monotheistic or monistic hypotheses

This hypothesis is related to a star. In this, the origin of the earth has been considered by only one star. In this, scholars have told that the origin of the solar system is the result of a single star. The originator of this hypothesis was the French scholar Buffon. This was followed by other supporters Kant Laplace, Lockier, Hershel, and Rosé. Their views are presented as follows

(1) Dr. Buffon’s hypothesis

Dr. Buffon, the first knower of the origin of the earth, presented his idea in 1745 AD. He was a resident of France. He has influenced a lot by keeping his opinion scientific. According to Georges De-B, “A long time ago, a very large tail star rotating in the universe passed close to the Sun, due to which the two collided. After this collision, a lot of matter was separated from the Sun, because at that time the Sun was liquid. This material from the Sun thus ejected and condensed over some time to form planets and satellites. The larger portions of matter that came out of the Sun became planets and the smaller portions became satellites. The substance just got dissolved in the atmosphere.” 

Criticism- This hypothesis was found to be very true to the people of its time, for almost 50 years no one argued against it, but in the growing scientific era other scholars strongly opposed it, which are as follows

1. First of all the scholars proved that all the bodies in space revolve in their respective orbits. In such a situation, how the giant tail star collided with the Sun in the second orbit, so this fact is completely untrue, as well as a big tail star collided with the big Sun, that is, no such example has been found to date.

 2. Scholars also told that the collision of the tail star with a giant Sun is not so important that it separates a lot of matter from the Sun, as well as the attraction power of the Sun is so strong that it can immediately dissipate its ejected material. absorbs in itself, so in no way does the sun allow its substance to separate. 

 3. Even if the molten material was separated from the Sun, then how did the planets and satellites made of it become spherical, because the molten material of the Sun was zigzag, so the hypothesis of Buffon does not come true.

 4. Buffon did not explain any order of the planets and satellites being formed with the Sun, whereas all the planets and satellites are placed in the order with the Sun. For example, first small planets and big planets are in the middle, and then small planets are established near the sun.

5. The mass of the tail star is 3 lakh times more than the mass of the Earth. It is about 1.3 million times bigger than Earth. Its diameter is about 13.84 lakh kilometers, which is 109 times more than the diameter of Earth. Because there is immense attraction power in the Sun. Because of this, all the planets and satellites of its family revolve around it. The Sun is so huge that even if all the planets and satellites of our solar system were stuffed inside it, they would be able to occupy only the 1100th part of it.

6. Scholars have also clarified that the Teva-matter material emanating from the Sun got changed in the form of a spherical planet, but how did the dynamic motion arise in them?

(2) Kant’s Gaseous hypothesis

After Buffon’s hypothesis, the famous German philosopher Immanuel Kant proposed the hypothesis regarding the origin of the earth in 1755 AD. Kant said, “Give me matter, and I will show the origin of the earth.” Presented on Newton’s law of gravitation. Kant has stated that in Newton’s law of gravitation every object is attracted toward the earth and in centrifugal force, every object tries to move away from the earth. According to Kant’s view, in the beginning, the hard particles made of many mythical substances were spread all over the world and the sky. All these mythical hard proto-particles gathered together due to gravity and started colliding with each other. The heat generated by the collision of these particles made the particles into the liquid and from the liquid to the gaseous state, that gaseous mass began to rotate when it became concentrated. Due to this constant rotational motion, the centrifugal force increased more than the gravitational force. With the increase of this centrifugal force, a bulge was created in the central part of the gaseous mass. In this bulge, there are nine circular Rings formed which separated to form the nebula. These became the Navagrahas and their additional satellites and the remaining part became the Sun. Thus the solar family was formed. Later on, this hypothesis was proved to be irrational, because this rule was assumed on the wrong rule of mathematics.

Criticisms – 

1. First of all this error comes in this hypothesis that the primitive particles started colliding with each other due to gravitational force. In what condition was this power hidden earlier and how did it manifest later?

2. Kant also confirmed that the collision started due to mutual excursions of the atmospheric proto-knows. Due to this collision, the force of gravity got stronger, but according to the “principle of protection of angular momentum” of dynamics, the reciprocating motion of particles cannot be created due to the collision of atmospheric primitive particles. Due to the mutual collision of different parts, there can be no change in their speed of rotation.

3. Kant has also told that with the increase in the size of the rotation of the nebula, the speed also increased. This rule is contrary to the above principle, because, in the principle of stability of cellular momentum, it has been told that if the size of the object increases, then its speed decreases, as well as if the speed increases then the size decreases. According to this principle and law, Kant’s imagination is proved wrong.

4. This hypothesis of Kant gets so much credit that the scholar who came forward Laplace, based on it, propounded the famous end.

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