The main reason for the mobility of the atmosphere is the Sun. Winds blow as a result of the uneven heating of the surface. Due to uneven temperature, there is a difference in the air pressure of different places. Winds start blowing from the place of high pressure to the place of low pressure. Thus air pressure controls the wind direction.
- Give an Analytical Description of the Landforms Formed by River Erosion.
- Discuss the nature and Scope of Geomorphology.
- Discuss Theories Related to the Origin of the Earth
Air Pressure and Winds
The velocity of air also depends on air pressure. The gradient of air pressure affects the speed of air. When the gradient of air pressure decreases, the wind blows at a high speed. Isobaric lines are indicative of a gradient. If the isobars are close to each other, then the hair falls and the winds blow at high speed, but when the isobars are far apart, the air pressure is low and the speed of the winds is slow.
Winds turn to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere due to the deflecting force generated by the motion of the earth, this is called Ferrel’s law. This rule has been told by Mr. Bize Ballett that “winds flow parallel to the isobar at a height from the surface of the earth. In this, the low air pressure area in the northern hemisphere remains on the left side of the winds and in the southern hemisphere on the right side.”
Major Planetary Permanent Winds
Six major permanent winds blow on the earth. Permanent winds are also called Sanatani or Sanmargi winds. Two winds blow from the sub-tropical high-pressure belts towards the equatorial low-pressure area. These are directional winds. Similarly, two winds blow from the sub-tropical high-pressure belts towards the sub-polar lowland region. These are called westerly winds. In addition, two winds move from the polar high-pressure belt to the subtropical low-pressure belt, where they meet the westerly winds. These are called polar winds.
Trade wind- These winds move between 100 to 300 latitudes, but along with the sun, their mountain moves 5° north and south. These winds blow at a certain speed in the sea areas. Their speed is usually 16 to 24 km. There is a big difference in their direction and speed over the continents. The north-easterly winds blow in the northern hemisphere and the south-easterly trade winds in the southern hemisphere. Dreams move in a certain direction and speed day and night without any hindrance. Due to these, there is sufficient rainfall on the eastern edges of the continents, but the western edge is often dry. They run on 30.6 percent of the water body.
Westerly winds – These winds blow between 30° to 60° latitudes. Their belts also slip. The reason for their origin is the polar low-pressure belt at the high pressure of horse latitude and the daily motion of the earth.
The westerly winds are stormy and cause heavy rainfall throughout the year. Due to coming from hot latitudes, they increase the temperature. Westerly cyclonic winds are found in the northern hemisphere, but in the southern hemisphere, the winds move freely on the vast seas at a tremendous speed. That’s why they are called thundering Chalisa or Veer Pachhua Pawan.
Polar Winds – Winds blow between 60° latitudes and B. Their belts move according to the position of the Sun. When the Sun shines in the Northern Hemisphere, its field shifts to the south, and when the Sun shines in the Southern Hemisphere, its field shifts to the north. These are extremely cold winds.
Land and Sea Breezes
1. Terrestrial Breezes – The winds blowing from the land are called Terrestrial Breezes. these places often
run towards the ocean. The further away they go, the less the effect becomes. it is often dry
There is Their effect on the coastal areas is contemporary. 2. Sea Breezes – The winds moving from the sea towards the land are called Sea Breezes. Sea breezes do not blow up to high altitudes in the atmosphere. But still, the height of these winds remains variable due to different atmospheric processes in different climatic regions. After investigation, it has been found that sea breezes are found near big lakes up to a height of 200-500 meters. But in tropical and sub-tropical parts, their height has been estimated at up to 1000-2000 meters on the parts near the oceans. That’s why it rains every day from 3 pm in the equatorial part and the tropical parts are completely affected by the sea breezes. Sea winds keep on changing their speed and direction according to the latitudes. In middle latitudes, their speed is 12 to 50 km per hour, while in low latitudes, their speed becomes, and in their condition, they take the form of storm, etc. A lot of change takes place according to the temperature of these winds.
Valley and Mountain Breeze
Mountain and valley breezes are also local winds like aquatic and terrestrial winds, which move due to the variation in daily air mass. During the day, after receiving heat from the sun’s rays, the winds of the mountain valleys become light and start rising above the valley. In this way, these winds rising from the valley with the support of the mountains reach the peaks of the mountains according to their routine and this valley is called Sameer.
Local Winds and Chinook Wind
Due to some special reasons, there is a disturbance in the order of planetary or permanent wind, and special types The winds blow in a particular season. Some winds also blow at a particular place. These are called local winds. Due to the local temperature difference of the surface, many types of local winds are generated, which have different names. Loo in northern India, Sirakko blowing from northern Sahara to Europe, Khamsin blowing in Egypt, Spoon blowing in Arav, Crick Fielder blowing in New South Wales (Australia) and Santana blowing in California (30 America) are local dry winds…
Mountain and valley breeze is also a local wind. In the mountainous regions, the mountain peaks get heated and become low-pressure, due to which the air of the valley rises. Fohn When this warm air rises from the Southern Alps, it expands and drops its moisture in the form of frost. When it crosses the hill and descends to the north, the temperature rises.
goes and it becomes hot. Chinook This haya warms as it descends from the Rocky Mountains to the northern plains. Its area of influence is wider than that of Foshan, there is the facility in agriculture work in the area of influence of Foshan and Chinook, hence they are important from an economic point of view.